• Blood Components and Services

BLOOD COMPONENTS

The Blood Bank also has an ancillary unit that runs 24 hours with whole blood and components of packed cell , platelet and plasma.  IVBB collect blood  from voluntary donor and separate it into its various components so they can be used most effectively according to the needs of the patient. Red blood cells carry oxygen, platelets help the blood clot, and plasma has specific proteins that allow proper regulation of coagulation and healing. Although research has yielded drugs that help people’s bone marrow produce new blood cells more rapidly, the body’s response time can still take weeks, thus donated blood remains an important and more immediate life-saving resource.

Red Blood Cells (In Additive Solution)

Red Blood Cells transports oxygen to various organs and helps in exhaling carbon dioxide from body. Red Blood Cells contains protein called Hemoglobin that carries oxygen. Red Blood Cells transfusion is required to increase supply of oxygen to tissues.

IVBB provides Red Blood Cells in Additive Solution. Additive solution preserves and extends shelf life of Red Blood Cells. As compared to Whole Blood and Packed Cells having shelf life of only 35 days, Red Blood Cells in additive solution have shelf life of 42 days. Red Blood Cells in additive solution have less chances of hemolysis during storage and also it helps easy fluidity during transfusion.

Red Blood Cells Hematocrit ranges from 55 – 65% and average hemoglobin per bag 13 – 45 gms. A strict donor acceptance criterion at Ivbb ensures the same. On the other hand a stringent Quality control measure ensures adequate dose, sterility and safety of the blood component.

Red Blood Cells transfusion is required in case of acute blood loss (almost 30% of blood volume). Most frequently required during surgeries. Red Blood Cells are transfused to patients having certain blood disorders like Sickle cell anemia, Thallassemia, aplastic anemia etc.

Red Blood Cells before issuing to patients requires cross match procedure. During Cross matching blood sample of patient is matched with blood sample of Voluntary

Random Donor Platelets (RDPs)

Platelet helps in stop bleeding. When injury occurs, platelets bind together and form a plug inside blood vessel, at injury site. Normally, platelet ranges from 150,000-450,000 per mcL (microliter). The average platelet count is 237,000 per mcL in men and 266,000 per mcL in women. Platelet count less than 150,000 per mcL is termed as thrombocytopenia while platelet count above 450,000 mcL is termed as thrombocytosis.

Platelet transfusion is required when platelet count falls down from normal range (thrombocytopenia) or because of some functional defects of platelets. This fall may be because of certain disease like dengue. Cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy also require platelets, very frequently.
>Platelets have shelf life of only 5 days and needs to be stored in agitator (shaking platform) at 20-24 degree celsius. Cross matching procedure is not required while issuing Platelets to patients.

IVBB ensures best quality of Platelets collected from Voluntary Donors only. Platelets derived from 350 ml blood donated ensures 30% more platelet yield. One unit of Platelet transfused can result in increase of platelet count by approximately 5000-10000 per mcL. Non group specific platelets can be given to patients, however, at IVBB we preferably issue group compatible Platelets, depending on availability at the time of request.

Fresh Frozen Plasma (FFP)

FFP is prepared by centrifugation of whole blood to separate platelet rich plasma (PRP); The PRP is further centrifuged to separate the plasma from the platelet concentrate. This plasma is then blast frozen to prevent loss of temperature-sensitive (“labile”) coagulation factors V & VIII. The separation of plasma within 6 hours of blood donation qualifies it to be called “fresh” and factors are best preserved in plasma blast frozen. IVBB have facility of blast freezing plasma. The blast freezer blasts cold air on to the plasma bag and pulls down the temperature from 30 degree celsius to less than -40 degree celsius in less than an hour. FFP can be stored at -40 degree celsius for 1 year.

FFP usage Indications.

  • Management of preoperative or bleeding patients who require replacement of multiple plasma coagulation factors (e.g., liver disease, DIC)
  • Patients with massive transfusion who have clinically significant coagulation deficiencies.
  • Patients on warfarin (an anticoagulant (blood thinner) that reduces the formation of blood clots. Used to prevent heart attacks, strokes, and blood clots in veins and arteries.) Who are bleeding or need to undergo an invasive procedure before vitamin K could reserve the warfarin effect or who need to have anticoagulation therapy after the procedure.
  • For transfusion or plasma exchange in patients with Thromnotic Thrombocytopenic Puputa (TTP)
  • Management of patients with selected coagulation factor deficiencies, congenial or acquired, for which no specific coagulation concentrates are available.
  • Management of patients with rare specific plasma protein deficiencies, such as C-1-esterase.

IVBB ensures safe FFP to patients, as the same is collected from Voluntary Blood Donors. Also ensures volume of FFP as high as 250 – 320 ml plus and good yield of most critical proteins. For FFP compatibility test is not required. Plasma must be ABO-compatible with the recipient’s red cells. Before issuing FFP to patients, it is thawed at 37 degree celsius. After thawing it should be stored at 2 – 6 degree celsius and must be transfused within 24 hours.

Saline Washed RBCs

Saline washed Red Blood Cells are used for patients having history of severe allergic reaction after transfusion. This process is done to remove all the plasma components and the accumulated chemicals during storage. The said process is done under laminar air flow to ensure sterility and saline wash Red Cells should be used within 24 hours.

Useful in cases of IgA deficiency and PNH

Apheresis - Single Donor Platelet

Apheresis

A technique by which a particular substance or component is removed from the blood, the main volume being returned to the body,eg: Plateletpheresis

IVBB have facility to provide Single Donor Platelet (SDP). This includes a special procedure wherein Voluntary blood donor only donates platelets. In this process we can harvest large number of Platelets from a donor, which would reduce the donor exposure for patient by six to eight times. This results in fewer febrile non hemolytic reactions and reduced HLA immunization. Single Donor Platelet shows better response in “refractory” patients (those who don’t respond well to random donor platelet concentrates transfusion)

IVBB ensures faster availability of Singe Donor Platelets(Apheresis) round the clock and also arranges for donor.

Advantages of Single Donor Platelets over Random Donor Platelets

  • Single Donor Platelets are more potent than Random Donor Platelets.
  • 1 unit of Single Donor Platelets (SDP) is equivalent to 6-8 units of Random Donor Platelets (RDP).
  • Single Donor Platelets, being collected by a more efficient system of component separation with leuko depleted cells.
  • Single Donor Platelets ensure that there is no wastage, as they are collected against specific needs

Single Donor Platelets are required in following cases

  • Apastic or hypo plastic anemia
  • Thrombocytopenia
  • Bone Marrow suppression following chemotherapy after leukemia
  • Myelo Dysplastic syndrome (MDS)
  • Non- Hodkin’s Lymphoma (NHL)
  • Dengue fever
  • Vascular surgery
  • DIC patients
  •  Hypersplenism etc
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